London-listed shares of BHP, the world’s biggest natural resources company, and rival Anglo American bothhitrecord highs earlier this week, boosted by rising commodity prices and the prospect of big cash returns when the sector’s reporting season starts next week.

受到大宗商品涨价及行业下周发布财报,预期未来会产生高额现金回报的影响,在伦敦上市的全球最大的自然资源公司必和必拓,以及其竞争对手英美资源集团,股价在本周稍早时均创下历史新高。

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海洋可以调节气候,为人类提供食物,产生世界上至少一半的氧气。而人类又是如何回报海洋的?过度开采有限的资源,用石油、塑料和噪音污染海洋。

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Chris Armstrong, a political theorist at the University of Southampton, UK, says that if we are to save the seas, something has to change. In A Blue New Deal, he argues that the institutions and laws that govern our oceans are toofragmented, too weak and too amenable tovestedinterests to protect the marine environment from further destruction. They are also failing to address the inequalities that exist between rich and poor nations, he says.

克里斯·阿姆斯特朗是英国南安普顿大学的政治理论家,他表示,如果我们想拯救海洋,就必须做出一些改变。在《蓝色新政》中,他认为,管理我们海洋的机构和法律过于分散且薄弱,过于顺从既得利益者,无法保护海洋环境免受进一步破坏。他说,它们也未能解决富裕国家和贫困国家之间存在的不公平性问题。

Hemakes his case fora new approach by exploring the mess we are in. Historically, ocean governance has been shaped by two contrary ideas: the freedom of the high seas,espousedin 1609 by Dutch philosopher Hugo Grotius in his book The Free Sea; and the more familiar idea of enclosure, by which a coastal state is entitled to exclusive control and enjoyment of itsimmediatemarine environment.

他通过探究我们所处的困境,为一个新的方法提供了佐证。历史上,海洋管理是由两种相反的观点形成的:1609年由荷兰哲学家胡果·格劳秀斯在其著作《海洋自由论》中提出的公海自由;以及大家更熟悉的圈地概念,即沿海国家对其临近的海洋区域有专属管辖权和享有权。

Grotius’s vision of an oceanic free-for-all would allow anyone with the wherewithal to exploit an ocean resource to do so as much and as often as they desire. This was a not entirely unreasonable position in the 17th century, given the limited technology available at the time. Clearly, though, it is no longer workable given that only a handful of rich nations can afford the expensive technologies required for seabed mining and mineral extraction.

格劳秀斯的公海自由的观点,将允许任何拥有资金设备及技术来开发海洋资源的人,随心所欲地开发和利用海洋资源。考虑到当时技术有限,这种观点在17世纪并非完全不合理。然而,考虑到只有少数富裕国家能负担得起海底开矿和矿物开采所需的成本高昂的技术,这种做法显然已不再可行。

The arguments against enclosure are perhaps best explained by reference to a 1968 article by ecologist Garrett Hardin, in which he said that “Freedom in a commons brings ruin to all”, usually expressed as the “tragedy of the commons”. The problem in applying this to the sea, as Armstrong points out, is that it isn’t necessarily true. In his view, “the real tragedy for individual ‘commoners’ was enclosure itself, which saw them being evicted from the land by wealthy landowners”.

反对圈地的论点,可能最好的解释来自于生态学家加勒特?哈丁1968年的一篇文章,他在文章中说:“公地自由会对所有人造成无差别打击”,人们通常也称为“公地悲剧”。正如阿姆斯特朗所指出的,将这种理论应用于海洋的问题在于,它不一定是完全对的。在他看来,“对于‘平民’个体来说,真正的悲剧在于圈地理论本身,即他们被富有的地主从土地上驱逐出去。”

Armstronglamentsthat the same issue plagues the enclosure of the seas, with rich nations enjoying the status of wealthy overlords. This, he blames on the 1994 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, which established exclusive economic zones (EEZs) extending for up to 200 nautical miles from nearly every shore. The rules exclude landlocked nations, including nine of the world’s 12 poorest

countries, from a share of the spoils. But they don’t prevent richer nations from licensing the rights to exploit the EEZs of countries too poor to do so themselves.

阿姆斯特朗感叹道,同样的问题也困扰着海洋的圈地理论,富裕的国家享受着富国霸主的地位。就此,他归咎于1994年的《联合国海洋法公约》,该公约为几乎每个沿海国家建立了长达200海里的经济专属区。这一公约将内陆国家排除在利益分配之外,而这些内陆国家中有9个是世界上最贫困的12个国家之一。翻译划线句,长按文末小程序码打卡,答案下期公布~

本文节选自:Scientific American(科学美国人)

发布时间:2022.02.16

词汇积累

1.fragment

英 /fr?ɡm?nt/ 美 /fr?ɡm?nt/

n.

碎片; 片段; 残存部分

v. (使)破碎,分裂

2.vest

英 /v?st/ 美 /v?st/

n. 背心,汗衫; 马甲

v. 授予,赋予,给予(权利或责任); (权力、财产等)交给,归属; (唱诗班歌手,神职人员)穿圣衣

3.espouse

英 /??spa?z/ 美 /??spa?z/

vt.支持;嫁娶;赞成;信奉

4.immediate

英 /??mi?d??t/ 美 /??mi?d??t/

adj. 立刻的,即时的; 目前的,紧迫的; 附近的,紧接的; (关系或级别)最接近的,直系的; (两者间)直接的; (感知,反应)直觉的

5.lament

英 /l??m?nt/ 美 /l??m?nt/

n. 挽歌,悼文; 表达哀伤(或痛惜)之情的言辞; 抱怨

v. 对……感到悲痛,对……表示失望; 抱怨

词组搭配

1.make one’s case for 提出充分的理由

写作句总结

They are also failing to address the inequalities that exist between rich and poor nations, he says.

结构: They are also failing to address the inequalities that exist between ….

它们也未能解决…之间存在的不公平性问题

例句: They are also failing to address the inequalities that exist between men and women.

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